Parkinson's Disease

This biomarker information is intended to be used by scientists for research purposes.

Diagnostic Criteria and Reviews


  • Paralysis agitans and levodopa in “Ayurveda”: ancient Indian medical treatise


  • Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases


  • Dopamine D3 receptor is decreased and D2 receptor is elevated in the striatum of Parkinson’s disease.


  • Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia in Parkinson’s disease.


  • Dopaminergic innervation of the human striatum in Parkinson’s disease


  • Practice Parameter: diagnosis and prognosis of new onset Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology
  • The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
  • The discovery of dopamine deficiency in the parkinsonian brain


  • The fate of striatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea


  • Low clinical diagnostic accuracy of early vs advanced Parkinson disease: clinicopathologic study
  • Parkinson disease subtypes


  • MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson’s disease


  • Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis



  • Alpha-synuclein and Parkinson’s disease
  • alpha-Synuclein phosphorylation as a therapeutic target in Parkinson’s disease
  • Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for Parkinson’s disease in an Ashkenazi Jewish population


  • Alpha-synuclein up-regulates expression of caveolin-1 and down-regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity in B103 neuroblastoma cells: role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease
  • Biased homozygous haplotypes across the human caveolin 1 upstream purine complex in Parkinson’s disease
  • Loss of parkin promotes lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis through accumulating caveolin-1: implications for Parkinson’s disease

E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Parkin

  • Heterozygosity for a mutation in the parkin gene leads to later onset Parkinson disease
  • Parkin mutations and susceptibility alleles in late-onset Parkinson’s disease
  • PINK1-dependent recruitment of Parkin to mitochondria in mitophagy


  • Haptoglobin phenotype modifies serum iron levels and the effect of smoking on Parkinson disease risk
  • MPTP administration increases plasma levels of acute phase proteins in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis)
  • Smoking and haptoglobin phenotype modulate serum ferritin and haptoglobin levels in Parkinson disease
  • The functional polymorphism of the hemoglobin-binding protein haptoglobin influences susceptibility to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease
  • Use of haptoglobin and transthyretin as potential biomarkers for the preclinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease.